Marie Pierre-Manet Beauzac claims to be the last living Cagot, a caste of European outcasts from the Pyrennes of Spain and France
Genealogy projects sometimes take strange turns. Whether you’re using centuries old birth records from churches tucked away in remote hills on the European continent to sending away for your DNA results that end up revealing a 5% African gene presence, you’re more often than not presented with unexpected surprises.
Marie Pierre-Manet Beauzac of the French Pyreenes is no exception. The arrival of children in her life led her on to a quest to discover her roots and what she found was quick a shock: she is descended from the Cagots, a people that were outcasts from Medieval Europe. We can’t be certain that she is the world’s last Cagot, but what we do know is that the existence of the outcast Cagots in Europe is not everyday knowledge. Much about the Cagots is blurred thanks to the fog of history and the deliberate destruction of documents by Cagots themselves who wished to be rid of their lower-caste status.
Here are some thoughts on where the Cagots came from, who they are, and what we do know about their treatment in Europe:
The people first emerge in documents around the 13th century. By then they are already regarded as an inferior caste, the “untouchables” of western France, or northern Spain. In medieval times the Cagots – also knows as Agotes, Gahets, Capets, Caqueux, etc – were divided from the general peasantry in several ways. They had their own urban districts: usually on the malarial side of the river. These dismal ghettoes were known as Cagoteries; traces of them can still be found in Pyrenean communities such as Campan or Hagetmau.
For hundreds of years, Cagots were treated as different and inferior. In the churches, they had to use their own doors (at least 60 Pyrenean churches still boast “Cagot” entrances); they had their own fonts; and they were given communion on the end of long wooden spoons. Marie-Pierre adds: “When a Cagot came into a town, they had to report their presence by shaking a rattle. Just like a leper, ringing his bell.”
Daily Cagot life was likewise marked by apartheid. Cagots were forbidden to enter most trades or professions. They were forced, in effect, to be the drawers of water and hewers of wood. So they made barrels for wine and coffins for the dead. They also became expert carpenters: ironically they built many of the Pyrenean churches from which they were partly excluded.
Some of the other prohibitions on the Cagots were bizarre. They were not allowed to walk barefoot, like normal peasants, which gave rise to the legend that they had webbed toes. Cagots could not use the same baths as other people. They were not allowed to touch the parapets of bridges. When they went about, they had to wear a goose’s foot conspicuously pinned to their clothes.
Quite interesting. Here’s the speculation on their background: Read the rest of this entry »